The question of how caregivers manage to avoid adverse outcomes or why some caregivers are at risk of adverse outcomes can be answered in part by understanding the role of depression. Tsai, Pao-Feng, developed a mid-range theory of caregiver stress based on Roy's adaptation model in 1999. This theory was tested to determine if depression mediated the relationship between caregiver stress and care delivery outcomes (physical function, self-esteem, and marital satisfaction). The statistics showed a moderate adjustment between the model and the data (x2 %3D 237.22).Depression was conceptualized as a mediator between caregiver stress and other chronic care outcomes. Being a female caregiver and providing more hours of care made the caregiver more susceptible to the perception of stress.
It is likely that older caregivers in this sample have taken on more hours of care than young caregivers, which has caused more stress for caregivers. Hours of care and the stress perceived by the caregiver were expected to play an important role in caregiver outcomes. The purpose of this microlongitudinal study was to evaluate the theory of caregiver stress in a sample of family caregivers with dementia living with their caregiver. The stress perceived by the caregiver was measured by an element that asked how much stress the caregiver felt caring for or organizing the care of the elderly relative. This study tested a hypothetical model that proposed that hours of care, stressful life events, social support, age and sex would predict caregiver outcomes through caregiver stress. Stressful life events can have an additional impact on the health of caregivers, apart from providing chronic care.
Stressful life events, social support, age and gender were background variables and are expected to influence caregiver outcomes through caregiver stress. Stressful life events could not predict the stress perceived by the caregiver; on the other hand, stressful life events predicted caregivers' outcomes due to depression. The theory of caregiver stress is suggested as a causal theory of physical and psychological abuse of older people (AD) and abandonment within dementia, due to the high rate of behavioral symptoms of dementia (BSD) and the stress of caregivers. Depression served as a mediator between caregiver stress and caregivers' physical function, self-esteem, and marital satisfaction. In conclusion, Tsai's mid-range theory of caregiver stress is an important tool for understanding how depression can mediate between caregiver stress and care delivery outcomes. This theory can help us understand why some caregivers are at risk for adverse outcomes and how they can manage to avoid them.